We need Vitamin D in order to absorb calcium properly. But as we grow older, we become less able to utilise the vitamin, and a deficiency may lead to muscular weakness and contribute to instability, falls and subsequent fractures. Some drugs interfere with Vitamin D absorption. If you regularly take any drug, ask your doctor about this.
Many dietary sources of Vitamin D are oily fish like herring, sardine, mackerel; also egg yolk, milk butter, cod liver oil.
Researchers now agree that destructive molecules known as free-radicals are responsible for many of the age-related degenerative diseases conditions in the human body – for example, wrinkles, memory loss, arthritis, atherosclerosis (which causes heart disease) and cancer-causing mutation in cells. The good news is that you can limit the damage inflicted by free-radicals and therefore affect the rate at which you age by making changes to your diet and lifestyle to reduce the levels of free radicals in your bloodstream.
The most damaging factor in ageing skin is over exposure to the sun. It causes age spots, coarse wrinkles, small broken blood vessels and the skin to have a leathery texture. This type of skin ageing can be prevented. Sun can affect the skin cells and causes cell damage, but it also poses health threats including skin cancers. The effects from the sunburn may not be visible for years, but the harmful rays will have done their damage. Always protect your skin with creams and gels containing SPF (sun protection factor) dermatologist’s number one skincare recommendation.
Recently I came across an excellent book “Breast Cancer – Answers at your fingertips”. Oh how I wish this sort of book had been available to me 22 years ago when I travelled my breast cancer journey alone. Sadly this book and all the other such books had yet to be written because cancer was not openly talked about that many years ago. Consequently I experienced my bumpy, sometimes frightening ride without a lot to read to prepare me for the unexpected hazards I encountered around every bend.
Harvesting Tacit Knowledge
It is generally agreed that we have neglected the knowledge derived from experience, focusing instead on the knowledge derived from the analysis of routinely collected data, stats or information, and knowledge derived from research, namely evidence.
This is a resource of vital importance and a resource that will grow. It is expected that each Public Health professional will submit a case report each year and this will be kept as a closed resource to encourage people to describe their failures as well as their successes. It is hoped that professionals will report on the projects that did not go so well as well as on those that were highly successful, for there is a proverb in management that we learn more from out mistakes than our successes. There is another proverb that says that although it is important not to re-invent the wheel, it is sometimes necessary, but what is really important is that we do not re-invent the flat tyre.
Allocative Value in Healthcare: determined by how assets are allocated to services for different purposes.
Tremendous progress has been made over the last forty years due to the second healthcare revolution, with the first healthcare revolution having been the public health revolution of the nineteenth century. Hip replacement, transplantation, and chemotherapy are examples of the high tech revolution funded by increased investment and, in the last twenty years, optimised by improvements in quality, safety and evidence based decision making. However there are still three outstanding problems which are found in every health service no matter how they are structured and funded: One of these problems is huge and unwarranted variation in access, quality, cost and outcome, and an analysis of unwarranted variation reveals the other two Overuse, which leads to waste, that is anything that does not add value to the outcome for patients or uses resources that could give greater value if used for another group of patients and often, patient harm, even when the quality of care is high
Underuse which leads to failure to prevent the diseases that healthcare can prevent, stroke and vascular dementia in atrial fibrillation for example, and often inequity
Clinical advances of the last fifty years have led to dramatic increases in life expectancy and years of life free from disability. However, every health service still faces five outstanding problems and four new challenges that are interlinked
A system is a set of activities with a common set of objectives and an annual report. For each objective one or more criteria are identified to measure progress or the lack of it and for each objective standards have been agreed and there are three standards:
Erewhon has a population of 5 million people. It is a population with an age distribution typical of most developed countries with about 15% of the population over the age of 65, and the population is ageing. Most live in cities, with two big cities each with a medical school, and city living is increasing and there are some thriving towns and some depressed industrial areas and large sparsely populated rural areas.